Wednesday, February 6, 2019

Tokens of History: Entrepreneurs Ralph Lewis Brown & Henry “Hal” Warren Brown

Tokens of History: Entrepreneurs Ralph Lewis Brown & Henry “Hal” Warren Brown

By Jeremy M. Tuggle & Chet Sunde, Psy.D.

Above: L-R: Brown's Coram Cigars & Tobacco and Ralph Brown, Kennett, Cal., five cents trade tokens. Front of tokens. From the collection of Jeremy M. Tuggle.

Above: L-R: Brown's Coram Cigars & Tobacco and Ralph Brown, Kennett, Cal. five cents trade tokens. Reverse side. From the collection of Jeremy M. Tuggle.

A woman named Flora Potter was first married to a man by the surname of Eldredge, whose given name eludes us, and during this union three children were born to them. However, two of their children died at a young age, and then a third child named Frank Raymond Eldredge, was born to them in Iowa in May of 1867. After this union ended, Flora married a second time to Andrew J. Brown in 1875. After that, she gave birth to Ralph Lewis Brown in California in November of 1875 and on March 7, 1882 in Arizona a second child named Henry Warren Brown was born to her.

The family returned to California in 1900 so Flora could reside near her son Frank who had been a resident of Shasta County since 1896. In 1900, the Brown family was living together in Redding. The 1900 U.S. Census recorded that five children were born to Flora (Potter) Brown and that only three were living by the time the 1900 U.S. Census was enumerated in June of that year.

However, the 1900 U.S. Census recorded that Henry Warren Brown was born in California, a typical mistake; we know for a fact that his true place of birth was Arizona due to additional supporting documents. Throughout his lifetime Henry Warren Brown was known by the nickname of “Hal” it’s unknown how he received this nickname but it stuck with him.

Their father, Andrew J. Brown is noted on the above census at the age of sixty-two, and he was employed as a carpenter. Flora (Potter) Brown was more than likely a common house wife who is recorded at the age of fifty-four, she didn’t have an occupation noted on this census. Their son Ralph is also noted at the age of twenty-four and he was employed as a news reporter.

Ralph was an employee of the Searchlight a local newspaper of Redding. The highest level of education that Ralph completed in school is not known. Henry is noted at the age of eighteen on this census and Henry was employed as a machinist. It’s not known where their children were educated. A later census record revealed that Henry completed elementary school and finished the eighth grade.

Then in 1906, Henry was employed as a clerk in Reuben Hoyle’s cigar and news stand in Redding. In April of that year, Henry Brown was appointed by the Board of Trustees of the Redding School District to enumerate a census of the school children in their school district. The Board of Trustees of the Redding School District felt that Brown was young and energetic enough to complete the job before its deadline between April 15th and April 30th of that year. Henry was excited to accept this paid position while working for Hoyle. 

Above: another undated photograph of Coram. There is an unidentified man sitting on the porch of the building in the foreground reading a newspaper. There is some vegetation in the landscape surrounding this community in the above photograph. Courtesy of Shasta Historical Society.

During May of 1906, the Balaklala Consolidated Copper Mining Company of Boston, Massachusetts, established the town of Coram located beside Cottonwood Creek, just north of Redding. Since the previous June, this company had already selected the site for the new smelter near the new town site. That May, advances on the property were underway as Shasta County’s fifth smelter was in its early stages of development. The contract for the brick work of the Coram smelter was awarded to the Holt & Gregg Company of Redding to produce one million bricks for the construction project.

In addition to that contract, another was let to the Terry Lumber Company who furnished two million feet of lumber during the smelter’s construction. The Bostonian mining company owned the lucrative Balaklala mine who the above mining company named themselves after. Their mine was located five miles away from the smelter site and their ore was eventually hauled to the smelter by an aerial tramway that stretched 16,500 feet. It was noted for its production of copper ore; the mine was located in 1882 by prospector Michael Thea. The town of Coram was named for Joseph A. Coram, a native of Montana, who had major stocks within in the above mining company.

After moving out of his parents’ house in Redding, Ralph Brown decided to settle at Kennett. The first business which Ralph established was located at Kennett where he opened a fruit stand. He borrowed $150 from his friends in Redding to make the investment work. After launching the fruit stand, the entrepreneur profited enough income to pay back his friends with interest. His fruit stand was located inside Victor E. Warrens’ brick building; a two story brick building with a basement, this building also included the famous Diamond Saloon.

Then on the evening of May 15, 1906, Ralph Brown married Flora Henderson in the Methodist Church at Kennett. Their wedding was performed by the Reverend Fay Donaldson. His brother Henry was his groomsman and a Mrs. Gage was Flora’s bridesmaid. At the time of their wedding, Ralph was a substantial business owner at Kennett. His fruit stand inside Warrens’ brick building now included cigars and newspapers. Brown had trade tokens manufactured for his store in Kennett with trade values ranging from five cents to ten cents.

Above: Ralph Brown, Kennett, Cal., ten cents trade token. From the collection of Chet Sunde.

At this time, Henry Brown was living at Redding where he would eventually resign from Hoyle’s cigars and news stand. This is when he wanted to relocate to Coram once Coram lots were available to purchase. Henry's parents remained in Redding, and not much is known about them after this time period. His half-brother, Frank Eldredge relocated south to Red Bluff where he became a licensed pharmacist. Frank had married in Shasta County on August 4, 1897, to Flora Kate Durfor.

Coram lots began selling on Friday, July 13, 1906 by the Balaklala Consolidated Copper Mining Company through their attorneys Sweeney & Tillotson in Redding and through Henry Brown who also represented the mining company. The local media often referred to Henry as Coram’s “first mayor” even though the town wasn’t incorporated yet as a city. It would take four more years for Coram to become incorporated. A few days later, two blocks in the brand new smelter community were sold to unnamed parties. Coram became a ramshackle mining community.

On July 21, 1906 the local media announced the establishment of a new town site called East Coram. The East Coram town site was located on land which was owned by its founder Hiram L. Tripp. Tripp was a resident of Santa Rosa who was employed as their post master. Another man named L.S. Barnes was one of his agents who helped him sell East Coram lots which would soon rival against the Coram town site.

In addition to that announcement, it was learned that East Coram would have a water system installed and it boasted something else that the town of Coram lacked- a newspaper. This new media outlet was published by Willard D. Pratt and it was called the Coram Enterprise. Since Henry Brown was selling Coram lots he was probably not too thrilled to learn about the East Coram town site coming into fruition. However, Henry probably advertised his store in the Coram Enterprise once it was published to gain more business for his store.

The Balaklala Consolidated Copper Mining Company hired many people from many trades such as: miners, pipe fitters, muckers and laborers who were experienced in these fields to start the production of copper ore at the Balaklala mine which yielded lucrative results as the ore bins were filling up waiting to be delivered to the Mammoth smelter at Kennett to be treated, and by June 29th, one hundred men were employed at the Balaklala mine. This mine was located on the western branch of Squaw Creek. By July 20th, a dozen lots in the Coram town site were sold ranging from $100 to $400; it’s possible that Henry was one of the new lot owners because a one-story 24x40 building was nearly completed for him on September 14th.

At a rapid rate Coram was enlarging fast with streets, bridges, and residential houses being constructed. Henry’s 24x40 one-story building was the headquarters for his new business venture- a cigar and tobacco stand. The entrepreneur began to make profits off the local miners. He was self-employed and he named his business Brown’s Cigars and Tobacco. This new business included the Coram post office. Like his brother Ralph, Henry had trade tokens manufactured for his store in the value of five cents in trade. Then on, August 4, 1906, Henry was appointed as the first post master of Coram. It was a position that he held honorably for six years and it kept him busy. 

Evidently, a school and church buildings were constructed for the general public at Coram. One thing that Coram lacked was a practical sewer system and it was Henry who invited local residents to discuss this topic inside his building on the night of March 4, 1907. Henry Brown led the discussion that night. According to one newspaper account it declared the following, “It was practically decided to install a septic tank system and to practically duplicate the piping system that has already been installed by the Balaklala Company’s water system for the town.” A committee was appointed to insure residents that the new sewer system would be installed within the year.

Later that month, Ralph Lewis Brown was elected as a Justice of the Peace for the Kennett Township. Kennett did not have a court house yet so Ralph rented the basement of Warrens’ two-story building to be used as the Kennett court house. He also purchased the necessary furniture that was needed for the court room. There was a calaboose (a jail) that was used by him and the local constable to lock people up who broke the law, charged with minor crimes. For the more serious crimes the calaboose held these inmates until the sheriff was able to transport them to the Shasta County Jail in Redding, then these inmates were tried in the Superior Court. Ralph’s court room kept busy getting rid of rough figures in both Kennett and Coram. A prime example is that one time the Shasta County Jail held fifteen inmates. Two thirds of them were from these communities.

During the interim, the school year at Coram started and on April 19, 1907 the first term of the school year ended. On that day, the town of Coram witnessed a disastrous $2,000 fire that destroyed the newly constructed Jay Burress’ building; a fire brigade was formed by the local residents to extinguish the flames which were threatening other buildings in the area. It was undetermined how the fire began. 

It was Coram’s first fire, and more would become a threat in the future of the town site. Henry Brown’s building survived, which was a major relief to him. Henry Warren Brown was considered as the grand “pooh-bah” of the new smelter town by the local media because he engaged himself into a majority of Coram ‘dealings’. 

During the construction phase of the new smelter, the Balaklala Consolidated Copper Mining Company directed their miners to extract copper from their nearby mine. Ore bins continued filling up with great success and on October 14, 1907, the officials of the mining company above declared that their ore bins were filling up too swiftly. Any additional mining had to be delayed to finish the new smelter. Work on the smelter site was steady. Then on October 21, 1907 the above mining company announced that due to the unstable copper market in the east they had to stop construction on the new smelter.

Later it was determined that the Balaklala Consolidated Copper Mining Company were bankrupt. Funds were completely emptied within the company and many employees were laid off. This affected property sales in Coram offered by their attorney’s Sweeney & Tillotson and Henry Brown.

It also affected property sales in the East Coram town site. The media frenzied over this upset. Due to the closure of the smelter, Henry felt the economy at Coram plunge, as many other people did too. Coram became deserted for the first time that month and so did the rivaling town of East Coram. It’s possible that Henry relocated back to Redding, when Coram became deserted.

While Henry fell into financial difficulties due to Coram's economy plunging, Ralph Brown kept improving his store at Kennett with the best quality merchandise available, aside from fresh fruit, cigars and newspapers. Ralph was now engaged in selling novelty items at his store. Then in December of that year, Ralph held a contest at his store. It’s not known what the customers had to do to achieve the grand prize during the contest, however, the grand prize was a brand new doll and the winner of the contest was Mary Hawkins. Hawkins was a resident of Kennett. Local stores often held contests to help promote their merchandise.

Above: an interior view of the Ralph Brown store at Kennett inside Warrens' brick building, date unknown. Notice the cigars in the display case to the left. Pictured in the photograph is Ralph Lewis Brown. Courtesy of Shasta Historical Society.

Apparently, the U.S. Postal Service headquarters in Washington D.C., allowed Henry Brown to retain his position of post master of Coram. Many people felt that the economy at Coram and East Coram would bounce back but to their dismay the economy failed due to no jobs in the area. The Balaklala Consolidated Copper Mining Company was eventually purchased by a new incorporation called the First National Copper Company. The First National Copper Company was incorporated in Nevada on January 20, 1908, and they became the parent company of the Balaklala Consolidated Copper Mining Company. This new incorporation helped financed the former owner. 

In July, the Balaklala Consolidated Copper Mining Company ordered one hundred and thirty-five car loads of coke for the Balaklala smelter. Coke is a chemical reducing agent which is used to help fuel the smelter. The town of Coram and the town of East Coram were still deserted even though the coke was delivered to the smelter site. With this shipment it indicated to a lot of people that the Balakala smelter would be reopen soon and the new communities would burgeon with success.

Three months later, Coram and East Coram were still deserted town sites. That October, the Balaklala Consolidated Copper Mining Company hired 200 employees to work for them in their mine and at their smelter. These employees helped change the economy of Coram and East Coram as the town sites were rejuvenated with life. Henry Brown and the other prosperous business owners of Coram came back to continue operating their companies.

Property sales of Coram lots at Henry’s store were consistent and they were also consistent at the office of Sweeney and Tillotson in Redding. The completion of the Balaklala smelter took place on October 20, 1908 when copper reduction started for the very first time at the new smelter. The brand new smelter held a daily capacity of one thousand tons of ore per day. Coram and East Coram were up-and-coming communities to live and work in.

Above: the Balaklala Smelter at Coram, Shasta County, California. There is some vegetation in the landscape surrounding the smelter in this picture. Dense smoke covers the sky from the toxic fumes released into the air by this smelter. Courtesy of the Shasta Historical Society.

Turmoil aroused local farmers to clash with the smelting companies in Shasta County, in 1909, when they discovered that their crops and the nearby vegetation surrounding them were dying due to polluted air. The poor air quality contained deadly toxins that fumed from the local smelters. Due to their findings, local farmers organized the Shasta County Farmers’ Protective Association, a group from Redding, which elected Girvan resident McCoy Fitzgerald as their president. 

Many negotiations were held around the county with these smelting companies. This is important to mention because Henry was one of the few Coram business men who negotiated talks with the above group at a later date to help save the Balaklala smelter. Some of the other targeted smelters were the Mammoth smelter at Kennett, the Mountain Copper Mining Company smelter at Keswick, the Bully Hill smelter at Delamar, and the Afterthought smelter at Ingot. Not in Shasta County, but in other parts of the state farmers were winning law suits against smelting companies in the Superior Court and this concerned the officials of the First National Copper Company. Work at the Balaklala smelter continued with copper treatment even with the continued threats of a possible closure.

Then on, April 5, 1910 the town of Coram became incorporated as a city. The town of East Coram was now annexed into the City of Coram as well. The April 6, 1910 edition of the Courier-Free Press newspaper of Redding heralded that Coram was now a sixth class city which won its incorporation in a vote of sixty to twenty-eight. The above newspaper article reported that the City Trustees were W.E. DeWitt, William A. Maguire, Arthur H. Fogarty, George O’ Grady and Claud D. Morton. The City Marshal was George Thomas, and another man named N.E. Kinyon was the City Clerk. The post master of the new City of Coram was Henry Brown. Henry become very instrumental in helping establish the new city. The City of Coram celebrated its incorporation that week.

Above: the Balaklala Supply Company at Coram manufactured this five cents trade token. From the collection of Chet Sunde.

In 1910, Henry Brown was living in the Keswick Township according to the 1910 U.S. Census. This census noted that he was employed as the postmaster for the town of Coram while he commuted to work every day from Keswick. He was listed at the age of twenty-eight. The one thing this record failed to mention is that he still operated his cigar and tobacco store at Coram. 

Ralph and his wife lived at Delta, in Shasta County, according to the above census when it was enumerated for their district on April 16, 1910. Ralph was noted as the local justice of the peace for the Delta Township on this census as well. Due to Flora (Henderson) Brown’s health declining, Ralph and his wife, relocated south from Delta to Oakland in Alameda County, and settled there.

Together they kept in close contact with their friends and family in Shasta and Tehama County by mail and they made frequent visits to the north state. Apparently, the move was what Flora needed to get healthier. It’s not known what her main health complications were. 

Ralph Brown was hired by the Fuller & Todd Company of Oakland to be their secretary. The above census also recorded that the City of Coram had an impressive population of seven hundred people at that time.

Their half-brother, Frank Eldredge was still married to his wife Flora, and they had a son by the name of Bernard who was noted at the age of five. Frank was still employed as a licensed pharmacist in Red Bluff where his family was living according to the 1910 U.S. Census. Frank was the only one of his siblings to have children.

Henry Brown was one of the business men in the City of Coram who favored the Cottrell process. Henry became a member of the committee of Coram delegates who believed that this process would solve the smoke problem for the Balaklala smelter. The Cottrell process was tested in the Balaklala smelter in February of 1911 with only one furnace operating. 

The Cottrell process was favored by these delegates because it removed the fumes from the smelting operation. The group had traveled from Coram to Anderson where they planned to meet with McCoy Fitzgerald and the Shasta County Farmers’ Protective Association on February 4th, but they were turned away by Fitzgerald. The main reason the Coram delegates were turned away by Fitzgerald is that the notice his group issued regarding the smelter smoke problems were not open to the general public. The meeting was only opened to people who had official business with the mining companies they listed on the notice. Eventually, the Coram delegates tried to arrange future meetings with the Shasta County Farmers’ Protective Association but they were unsuccessful in obtaining a meeting with them, and Henry Brown would not give up hope for the smelter’s future.

As a result of the Cottrell process failing, the smelting and mining operations at the Balalklala smelter were shut down on the morning of July 22, 1911. Eventually, the closing of the smelter would soon have a major impact on the economy of the City of Coram, which continued to operate. On August 3, 1911, it was reported by the local media that the city government of Coram was still active, yet activities in and around the city were very dull. The City of Coram’s treasury department operated with an extremely low budget even though they still had funds to use for spending if it was needed.

Brown’s Cigar and Tobacco store which included the Coram post office was still in business as well. By mid-August the City of Coram was deserted again. The only activities pursued by the Balaklala Consolidated Copper Mining Company pertained to their little saw mill near their mine. A very small crew of men was kept on the payroll to operate the mill. 

Ralph Brown returned to Redding on August 25, 1911, he had spent a year working as a secretary for the Fuller & Todd Company in Oakland undertaking real estate sales. Ralph Brown was quoted by the Courier-Free Press newspaper of Redding by saying, “Business has been good… but I have sold out to an advantage.” He had sold out his shares of stock within that business yet it wasn’t clear what he wanted to do next in his life.

This was the second time the Balaklala smelter closed and the U.S. Postal Service headquarters in Washington D.C., wouldn’t allow Henry Brown to retain his position as post master of Coram. The following excerpt was taken from an article in the Sacramento Daily Union newspaper on October 12, 1911, about the Coram post office which Henry had charge of: “By order of the post office department, the office at Coram, Shasta county, will be discontinued October 31.” 

Henry returned to Keswick where he lived after the Coram post office was discontinued. During the following year, there were many attempts made by the Balaklala Consolidated Copper Mining Company to reopen their smelter. The City of Coram continued with its ghostly appearance. All that was left were the buildings which were completely intact.

Above: the Southern Pacific Depot at Coram in 1912. Check out the denuded landscape from the toxic fumes of the Balaklala smelter. Courtesy of Shasta Historical Society.

Apparently, the U.S. Postal Service headquarters in Washington D.C., reinstated the Coram post office because a man named George S. Bolles succeeded Henry Brown as the post master on March 21, 1912; evidently Coram retained a small population of people that met the regulations of the U.S. Postal Service. Brown may have continued to make a profit with his cigar and tobacco shop with the returning residents and may have allowed the new postmaster to use his building for the post office or it’s possible that he sold out to Bolles as well; we don’t know what exactly happened. With the smelter closed, the Balaklala Consolidated Copper Mining Company took an immense interest in their copper mine in 1914 as they began hire people and recommence the production of copper. This gave the City of Coram a revived energy and new businesses took over in the city.

During that period the copper ore was transferred out of the area to be treated. A search through the records and microfilm at Shasta Historical Society became exhausting to determine the initial outcome of Henry Brown’s Cigar & Tobacco store at Coram. It’s not known, when Brown relocated from Keswick. Probably between, 1914 and 1915, since very little is printed about him in the local media.

During 1918, the City of Coram became unincorporated as a city. After that, additional mining activities in the area slowed down while residents began to abandon the town. Eventually, the town of Coram became deserted again when the Balaklala Consolidated Copper Mining Company closed the Balaklala mine during May of 1919.

Henry Brown was then living at Concord, in Contra Costa County, with his wife Nora Eleanor (Knapp) Brown. Together they rented a house in that town and he had accepted a job as a fireman with the Associated Oil Company of Concord. The 1920 U.S. Census records him being employed as a treater in the oil works industry; it’s possible that he was still employed by the above company, while his wife’s occupation was not noted. Nora was recorded at the age of thirty.

Ralph and wife were documented as living at San Francisco according to the above census record. Yet, the census for their district is badly faded and is very hard to read. It’s not clear what Ralph Brown’s occupation was at that time. 

Their half-brother Frank continued living at Red Bluff with his wife Flora and their two children, Bernard and Majorie. Then on, May 19, 1921, Frank Raymond Eldredge died at Red Bluff. He was fifty-four years of age, and he was buried at Oakland, Alameda County, in the Chapel of the Chimes Columbarium and Mausoleum Cemetery. His funeral was well attended by his friends and family. Frank was survived by his wife Flora (Durfor) Brown and his two children, Bernard and Marjorie.

Then on, July 21, 1928, heart problems caused the death of Ralph Lewis Brown who died suddenly when he was on vacation at the Twain-Harte Lodge in the Sierra’s (Tuolumne County, California). Ralph died at the age of fifty-two. Before his death, Ralph had been a well-known cigar merchant and he owned a cigar store on Third Street at San Francisco. He was a partner in the San Francisco law firm of Hatter & Brown.

After his short interest in the real estate business, Ralph Brown entered a law school in San Francisco, where he graduated. Then he took the California state bar exam and passed it to become an attorney-at-law. The last time Ralph Brown visited Redding was three weeks prior to his death when he and some friends chartered a private plane to Redding. It’s unknown to us when his wife, Flora (Henderson) Brown died, but she did survive her husband. There were no children born to this union.

During 1930, Henry and Nora were living in Suisun City, in Solano County where Henry was engaged in running his own stationary shop. He is listed in the 1930 U.S. Census as a retail merchant. Once again they rented their own residence. Nora was more than likely a house-wife though the above record doesn’t record her occupation. They are living in the same place in 1935 according to the 1940 U.S. Census which also indicates they were residing in the same place again.

Henry was the owner of his own stationary store and his wife Nora assisted in a stationary store as well. More than likely is was her husband’s store that he owned and operated. Henry "Hal" Warren Brown died in Solano County at the age of fifty-nine on February 13 1942, his wife Nora survived him by another eight years and she died on July 2, 1950 in Alameda County.

Above: this undated photograph of Coram showcases the Culver hotel & the Smelter House Beer & Restaurant in the center of town. The landscape is denuded due to the Balaklala Smelter's toxic fumes which were released into the air. Courtesy of Shasta Historical Society.


1896 Voter’s Registration, Shasta County, California

1900 U.S. Census

BALAKLALA OFFICES WILL BE LOCATED IN DEPOT HOTEL – April 28, 1906, The Courier-Free Press newspaper of Redding.

HAL BROWN TO TAKE CENSUS – April 2, 1906, The Courier-Free Press newspaper of Redding.

HOLT & GREGG GET CONTRACT FOR 1,000,000 BRICK – May 3, 1906, The Courier-Free Press newspaper of Redding.

BALAKLALA CONTRACTS FOR MUCH LUMBER – May 14, 1906, The Courier- Free Press newspaper of Redding.
RALPH BROWN IS A MARRIED MAN – May 16, 1906, The Courier-Free Press newspaper of Redding.

100 MEN WORKING AT BALAKLALA – June 29, 1906, The Courier-Free Press newspaper of Redding.

HAL BROWN, THE MAYOR - July 13, 1906, The Courier-Free Press newspaper of Redding. 

CORAM LOTS – July 13, 1906, The Courier-Free Press newspaper of Redding.

CORAM LOTS SELLING – July 13, 1906, The Courier-Free Press newspaper of Redding.

NEW TOWN OF CORAM GROWING RAPIDLY – July 20, 1906, The Sacramento Union newspaper.

RALPH BROWN – July 21, 1906, The Courier-Free Press newspaper of Redding.

EAST CORAM WILL HAVE WATER WORKS - July 21, 1906, The Courier-Free Press newspaper of Redding. 

HAL BROWN, THE POOH BAH OF CORAM – August 10, 1906, The Courier-Free Press newspaper of Redding.

HAL BROWN HAS POSTMASTER’S COMMISSION – September 1, 1906, The Courier-Free Press newspaper of Redding.
CORAM GROWS RAPIDLY – September 15, 1906, The Sacramento Union newspaper.

TWO JUSTICES WHO KNOW THEIR BUSINESS – January 26, 1907, The Sacramento Union newspaper. 

CORAM WANTS SEWER SYSTEM – March 4, 1907, The Courier-Free Press newspaper.

KENNETT COURT IN WARRENS BUILDING - March 24, 1907, The Courier-Free Press newspaper of Redding.

CORAM NEWS NOTES – April 19, 1907, The Courier-Free Press newspaper of Redding.

THE SMELTER TOWN OF CORAM HAS FIRST FIRE, April 19, 1907 – The Courier-Free Press of Redding.

BALAKLALA MINE WORK TOO SWIFT FOR THE SMELTER – October 14, 1907 – The Courier-Free Press newspaper of Redding.

CONSTRUCTION WORK STOPPED – October 21, 1907, The Courier-Free Press newspaper of Redding.

MARY HAWKINS – December 27, 1907, The Courier-Free Press newspaper of Redding.

Mines and Minerals Volume XXVIII, August 1907 to July 1908, Scranton, Pennsylvania – International Textbook Company ©1908, pages 411-419.

The Copper Handbook A Manual of the Copper Industry of the World Volume: VIII – Compiled and published by Horace J. Stevens, Houghton, Mich. ©1908, pages 349-351.

McCOY FITZGERALD – July 8, 1908 – The Courier-Free Press newspaper of Redding.

135 CAR-LOADS OF COKE FOR CORAM – July 23, 1908, The Courier-Free Press newspaper of Redding.

THE CORAM SMELTER BLOWS IN SOON – October 15, 1908, The Courier-Free Press newspaper of Redding.

1910 U.S. Census

1910 Shasta County Directory

CORAM DELEGATION GOES TO ANDERSON – February 4, 1911, The Courier-Free Press newspaper of Redding 

$1,000,000 SMELTER MUST SHUT DOWN – June 21, 1911, The San Francisco Call newspaper.

CORAM SMELTER SHUT DOWN AT 8:45 TODAY – July 22, 1911, The Courier-Free Press newspaper of Redding.

CITY GOVERNMENT OF STILL LIVES – August 3, 1911, The Courier-Free Press newspaper of Redding.

RALPH BROWN, OLD-TIME REDDING NEWSPAPERMAN – August 25, 1911, The Courier-Free Press newspaper of Redding.

WILL CLOSE POST OFFICE AT CORAM – October 12, 1911, The Sacramento Daily Union newspaper

Moody’s Manual of Railroads and Corporation Securites, Volume II, Seventeenth Annual Number, ©1916 by Moody Manual Company of New York. Pages page 2616. (First National Copper Company Incorporation, purchase, finance.)

RALPH BROWN – August 12, 1919, The Courier-Free Press newspaper of Redding.

1920 U.S. Census

RALPH BROWN PASSES SUDDENLY IN SIERRAS – July 23, 1928, The Courier-Free Press newspaper of Redding.

1930 U.S. Census

U.S., Appointments of U. S. Postmasters, 1832-1971, available on microfilm in the archives of Shasta Historical Society.

1940 U.S. Census

Henry Warren Brown in the California, Death Index, 1940-1997, available on

Place Names of Shasta County by Gertrude A. Steger revision by Helen Hinckley Jones, ©1966 by La Siesta Press, Glendale, California, page 26.

Mines and Mineral Resources of Shasta County, California – County Report 6 – by Philip A. Lydon and J.C. O’ Brien ©1974 by California Division of Mines and Geology, pages 1-178.

COUNTY WILL SELL TOWN FOR TAXES – November 13, 1976 – Redding Record Searchlight newspaper of Redding. (mine 5 miles away from smelter, aerial tramway.)

CORAM, a Flag Stop on the Southern Pacific – The Covered Wagon 1981, Written by Genev Vickers Roberts. Published by Shasta Historical Society. Pages 24-32.

HISTORICAL SOCIETY TO PRESENT ‘THE RISE AND FALL OF CORAM’ – February 13, 2016 – Record Searchlight newspaper, written by Michael Kuker.

Shasta County, California Marriages, 1852-1904, published by Shasta Genealogical Society. (Eldredge marriage.)

On This Date… (Ralph Brown) – December 16, 2000, The Record Searchlight newspaper of Redding.

Murder of a Landscape, The California-Farmer Smelter War 1897-1916 by Khaled J. Bloom ©2010 Published by the University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Publishing Division of the University.

Kennett Constable Assaulted – The Covered Wagon 2018, written by Jeremy M. Tuggle. Published by Shasta Historical Society. Pages 77-86.

Frank R Eldredge in the California, Death Index, 1905-1939, available on

U.S. Find A Grave: Frank Raymond Eldredge, available at:

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